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Wilson, James Grant, & Fiske, John (Eds.). Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 1. New York: Appleton, 1888, 1915.
Cullum, George W. Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy, at West Point, N.Y., from its Establishment, March 16, 1802 to the Army Re-organization of 1866-67. New York: Van Nostrand, 1868.
Hamersly, Thomas H. S. Complete Regular Army Register of the United States: For One Hundred Years (1779-1879). Washington, DC: Hammersly, 1880.